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Les pesticides dans l'air en France : illustrations des actions menées par les associations agréées de surveillance de la qualité de l'air

Atmospheric measurements of pesticides in France by the air quality monitoring networks

Tiphaine Delaunay, Justine Gourdeau, Agnès Hulin, Sandrine Monteiro et Pierre Pernot

p. 437-452

[Version imprimable] [Version PDF]

Résumé

Enjeu majeur de santé publique, les pesticides font lʼobjet de mesures dans le compartiment atmosphérique depuis 2001 par les Associations agréées de surveillance de la qualité de lʼair (AASQA), sur le territoire national. Les 16 régions investiguées présentent des similitudes, notamment concernant lʼévolution des concentrations de certains composés. Il est cependant apparu difficile de quantifier un niveau de fond semblable pour toutes les régions, excepté pour le lindane, insecticide interdit depuis dix ans et retrouvé toute lʼannée sur lʼensemble du territoire.
Les différentes études menées sur plus dʼune centaine de sites depuis 2001 font apparaître que les traitements environ- nant les sites de mesure ont un impact direct sur la quantité et le type de molécules retrouvées. Au sein dʼune année, cʼest lors de la plus forte période dʼépandage, en mai et juin, que le maximum de composés est détecté. En milieu rural, les appli- cations de pesticides affectent directement les sites, aussi bien en limite de parcelle quʼau cœur des villages, où les niveaux sont généralement plus importants que dans les agglomérations. En zone urbaine ou périurbaine où deux tiers des prélève- ments des AASQA ont été conduits, les sites sont également directement influencés par les applications locales. Lʼair des villes contient en effet les mêmes pesticides que ceux utilisés et retrouvés dans la zone traitée environnante, quʼelle soit en large périphérie ou plus locale. Enfin, la présence avérée de pesticides variés en air intérieur, documentée pour deux régions, montre que ce milieu constitue un axe de recherche important. Au-delà de la mesure des pesticides dans lʼair ambiant, les AASQA explorent également dʼautres aspects de la contamination et travaillent sur ce domaine en cohérence avec les orien- tations nationales, et ce dʼautant que les pratiques phytosanitaires sont actuellement en forte évolution.

Abstract

With an increasing public concern on the health risks due to pesticides, the French air quality monitoring networks have been conducting atmospheric measurements of these compounds since 2001. This important work has led to establish two national experimental standards describing atmospheric sampling and analysis methods. Gaseous and particular phases are collected during one day or one week, and analyzed together by liquid and/or gas chromatography equipped with an appro- priate detector. The studies were carried out at more than 100 sampling sites in 16 regions, mostly in urban and suburban areas, and in rural places surrounded by cereals or vine, both representing the major French crops. The detection frequency of several compounds such as atrazin (an herbicide banned in 2003) or trifluralin (an herbicide used in sunflowers and rapeseeds) has decreased in the air since 2001. The present study compares the evolution and concentration levels of three pesticides among the investigated urban sites. While the monthly evolution of trifluralin, endosulfan (an organochlorine insec- ticide) and chlorothalonil (a fungicide widely used to control fungal diseases on vegetables, wheat, peas, vine…) is similar at all sampling sites, the results highlight the difficulty to quantify a similar background level for all regions, except for lindane. This organochlorine insecticide, although being banned for use in agriculture for 10 years, is still continuously found throughout the country at average concentrations of around 0.5 ng/m3 because of its volatilization from soils and treated woods.
Five networks have conducted year-round sampling from 2001 to 2006. The compilation of these studies shows that on average seven different pesticides (mostly herbicides) are found in the air, with an average amount of 7 ng/m3 per month and sampling site. Further studies show that local use of pesticides surrounding the sampling sites has a direct impact on the amount and type of molecules found. Throughout the year, maximal pesticides numbers and concentrations are found in May and June, with agricultural practices accounting for the majority of pesticides. The average numbers and concentrations measured in June reach about 15 times those of winter levels.
Investigations carried out during the application of pesticides reveal that the atmospheric pesticide concentrations are similar within the same agricultural parcel and in the vicinity of it. Their spreading can impact the surrounding village in diffe- rent ways according to the type of molecule used. Average pesticide amounts in rural areas are generally higher than those in urban areas. These higher concentrations are not necessarily related to higher detection frequencies or higher molecule numbers.
In urban and suburban areas – where 66% of the 2 300 measurements were conducted from 2001 to 2006 – the sites are also directly influenced by local applications. Generally, the same type of pesticide can be detected in urban air as that used in the surrounding agricultural area. For example, in the Aquitaine region, typical vine pesticides are found, while in the center of France those molecules which are used on wheat, rapeseed, corn, and sunflowers can be measured. Within the urban areas, the evolution and concentrations of pesticides is very similar and independent of the sampling place, except if there is a nearby field which was treated in the vicinity of it.
Two studies carried out of indoor air from 20 houses show the presence of 30 different pesticides, including lindane and three other molecules that are now forbidden but used for wood treatment in the past. Given the amount of time spent indoor, this environment is expected to become a growing field of research interest.
Besides the measurement of pesticides in ambient air, the French air quality monitoring networks also take other aspects into account such as contamination, emissions inventories, atmospheric fate of pesticides, etc. Work performed in this scope follows national regulations, e.g., the “Ecophyto 2018” plan which aims at reducing by half the use of pesticides over the next ten years.

Entrées d'index

Mots-clés : Pesticide, Lindane, Surveillance de la qualité de lʼair

Keywords: Pesticide, Lindane, Air quality monitoring

Pour citer ce document

Référence papier : Tiphaine Delaunay, Justine Gourdeau, Agnès Hulin, Sandrine Monteiro et Pierre Pernot « Les pesticides dans l'air en France : illustrations des actions menées par les associations agréées de surveillance de la qualité de l'air », Pollution atmosphérique, N° 208, 2010, p. 437-452.

Référence électronique : Tiphaine Delaunay, Justine Gourdeau, Agnès Hulin, Sandrine Monteiro et Pierre Pernot « Les pesticides dans l'air en France : illustrations des actions menées par les associations agréées de surveillance de la qualité de l'air », Pollution atmosphérique [En ligne], N° 208, mis à jour le : 09/10/2012, URL : http://lodel.irevues.inist.fr/pollution-atmospherique/index.php?id=79, https://doi.org/10.4267/pollution-atmospherique.79

Auteur(s)

Tiphaine Delaunay

Atmo Nord-Pas-de-Calais – World Trade Center Lille – 299, boulevard de Leeds – 59777 Euralille

Justine Gourdeau

Atmo Auvergne – 21, allée Evariste Galois – 63170 Aubière

Agnès Hulin

Atmo Poitou-Charentes – Rue A. Fresnel ZI de Périgny – 17184 Périgny cedex

Sandrine Monteiro

Atmosf’air Bourgogne – 5, rue Pasteur – 21000 Dijon

Pierre Pernot

Airparif – 7, rue Crillon – 75004 Paris